Feminist Ethics According to Jaggar, many feminist writers insist that the values and virtues inherent in most traditional moral theories typically reflect a masculine perspective and therefore present a one-sided view of morality.
At the end of the day, according to the exemplarist, our moral system still rests on our basic propensity to take a liking or disliking to exemplars. Rather, he begins with an account of the metaphysics of goodness. The two best-known agent-based theorists, Michael Slote and Linda Zagzebski, trace a wide range of normative qualities back to the qualities of agents.
Adults, on the other hand, are culpable if they mess things up by being thoughtless, insensitive, reckless, impulsive, shortsighted, and by assuming that what suits them will suit everyone instead of taking a more objective viewpoint.
Aristotle Chapter 17 virtue ethics a number of specific remarks about phronesis that are the subject of much scholarly debate, but the related modern concept is best understood by thinking of what the virtuous morally mature adult has that nice children, including nice adolescents, lack.
It should go without saying that the virtuous are mindful of the consequences of possible actions. As we observe the people around us, we find ourselves wanting to be like some of them in at least some respects and not wanting to be like others.
King Kamehameha II removed the taboos of the people in order to modernize their society and met little if any resistance. For Aristotle, virtue is necessary but not sufficient—what is also needed are external goods which are a matter of luck. Such ignorance in small children is rarely, if ever culpable.
It is part of practical wisdom to be wise about human beings and human life. There are now a number of careful studies of the cardinal virtues and capital vices Pieper ; Taylor ; Curzer ; Timpe and Boyd However, there could also be less ambitious agent-based approaches to virtue ethics see Slote It then examines what these traits involve.
And good agency is defined by the possession and exercise of such virtues.
Similarly, he explains the goodness of an action, the value of eudaimonia, the justice of a law or social institution, and the normativity of practical rationality in terms of the motivational and dispositional qualities of agents So, for example, children and adolescents often harm those they intend to benefit either because they do not know how to set about securing the benefit or because their understanding of what is beneficial and harmful is limited and often mistaken.
The fact that Kamehameha II could abolish them so easily and without opposition is evidence, MacIntyre argues, Chapter 17 virtue ethics their incoherence. Ethics and politics are closely related, for politics is the science of creating a society in which men can live the good life and develop their full potential.
It is a noteworthy feature of our virtue and vice vocabulary that, although our list of generally recognised virtue terms is comparatively short, our list of vice terms is remarkably, and usefully, long, far exceeding anything that anyone who thinks in terms of standard deontological rules has ever come up with.
However, as noted in section 2, other forms of virtue ethics have begun to emerge. Discussion of Happiness and the good as the ends of human life.
How could they fail to be reckless, thoughtless and short-sighted if they were not? Another reason MacIntyre gives for the doomed nature of the Enlightenment is the fact that it ascribed moral agency to the individual.
Claims about what constitutes flourishing for human beings no more float free of scientific facts about what human beings are like than ethological claims about what constitutes flourishing for elephants. Objections to virtue ethics A number of objections have been raised against virtue ethics, some of which bear more directly on one form of virtue ethics than on others.
However, recent work suggests that Aristotelian ideas can, after all, generate a satisfyingly liberal political philosophy Nussbaum ; LeBar a.
A misunderstanding of eudaimonia as an unmoralized concept leads some critics to suppose that the neo-Aristotelians are attempting to ground their claims in a scientific account of human nature and what counts, for a human being, as flourishing. These philosophers "fail because of certain shared characteristics deriving from their highly specific historical background.
Adams uses love to weed out problematic resemblances: See Annas for a short, clear, and authoritative account of all three. It is possible to perform a right action without being virtuous and a virtuous person can occasionally perform the wrong action without that calling her virtue into question.
Cambridge University Press, pp. Possessing a virtue is a matter of degree. Further discussion of Pleasure. But this is not yet a sufficient condition for counting as an agent-based approach, since the same condition will be met by every virtue ethical account. For a discussion of the differences between eudaimonists see Baril Although virtue ethics has grown remarkably in the last thirty-five years, it is still very much in the minority, particularly in the area of applied ethics.
Whether one needs other concepts and, if so, how many, is still a matter of debate among virtue ethicists, as is the question of whether virtue ethics even ought to be offering an account of right action.
MacIntyre asks what the sciences would look like if they were re-assembled from the remnants of scientific knowledge that survived the catastrophe.In virtue ethics, moral conduct is supposed to radiate naturally from moral virtues.
That is, moral actions are derived from virtues. A virtue is a stable disposition. This chapter provides an intellectual framework for understanding modern theories of virtue.
It presents a version of virtue ethics, which draws on the resources of the historical, particularly ancient, tradition, discussing the ways in which a virtue is a disposition, and the ways in which it involves practical reasoning and emotion.
Chapter Virtue Ethics I agree with Aristotle’s argument and conclusion that being virtuous person contributes so much to someone’s life with regards to going well.
The reason for this is that our ultimate goal ought to be self-sufficient. Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism).
Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Self-Quizzes Reading Summaries. Web Links. Chapter 4. Chapter 5. Chapter 6. Chapter 7. Chapter 8. Flashcards. Contact Your Sales Rep.
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In this excerpt Shafer-Landau critiques virtue ethics, arguing that virtue ethics and the divine command theory share a basic. Chapter 17 1. According to virtue ethics, the fundamental moral question is: What kind of person should I be?
2. In the West, virtue ethics traces its origins back to Aristotle 3. According to virtue ethics, actions are right just because they would be performed by a virtuous person 4. Virtue ethics is a form of ethical pluralism 5.
According to virtue ethics, the simple formula for right %(1).Download